Masonry walls can be used for external building envelope, separating walls, internal partitions , and industrial fire walls, but also infill walls in structural frames, basement construction and external structures such as garden walls and retaining walls.
For external masonry building envelope the three common options for new buildings are:
cavity wall with full fill insulation
cavity wall with partial fill insulation
solid wall with external insulation.
Primary design considerations on the type of solution are cost, thermal performance and overall width and external appearance. All three options can be designed and constructed from the full range of block types.
Construction Detail 0030 - Example of cavity wall full fill
CBA Detail 205 - Example of party wall junction
Separating walls can be constructed from double leaf with cavity (as shown above) for example with 100 mm blocks or with a single leaf solid wall for example with 215mm locks. Separating walls with cavities are no longer recommended due to heat loss.
Internal partitions, either load bearing or non loadbearing are typically single skin with the thickness determined by panel dimensions and level of restraint at the ends and top of the wall. The thickness range is from as little as 75mm block to 200mm. Industrial fire walls are designed according to Eurocode 6.